If you have iPhone backup on an old PC, or old prallel install of other (or even non-functioning) operating system, you still can restore your iPhone through iTunes.
Copy a long number directories from old installation to a new one. For example copy a directory from …Old User Directory\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup to %UserProfile%\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup
It appears that your applictions are not part of the backup. Also, I don see any music files to be restored. However, even your last search in Google maps is restored and saved.